e-book Net force (Italian Edition)

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Il giorno prima. Da Hiroshima a oggi: chi e come ci porta alla catastrofe , Zambon ; Diario di guerra. Escalation verso la catastrofe - , Asterios Editores Article licensed under Creative Commons. Support Voltaire Network. In order to continue our work, we need you to support our efforts. Help us by making a contribution. How to participate in Voltaire Network? The members of our team are all volunteers.

Professional-level mother-tongue translators: you can help us by translating our articles. Manlio Dinucci. Manlio Dinucci Geographer and geopolitical scientist. This author's articles To send a message. The Ariete was composed of 6, men, tanks, 36 field guns, 61 anti-tank guns and the Brescia infantry division. Rommel now had , Italians, 7, Italian trucks supplying munitions to the front, 1, Italian guns and Italian aircraft under his command. Also in the Italian forces in North Africa had ratio of artillery to infantry battalions, while the British had a superior The British had seventy-five 25 pounders 88mm artillery pieces per division; Italian divisions had twenty-four 75mm and twelve mm guns.

Because of the inferior quality of the Italian aircraft against their British rivals, Italian sorties—with just 1, pounds of bombs per aircraft—had to be conducted at night or as sporadic daylight raids. Italian pilots also found British radar a difficult obstacle to overcome. Within four months, the number of Italian BR. At the unsuccessful conclusion of the Battle of Britain, a total of 54 tons of Italian ordnance had been dropped on England. A total of sorties were completed, in which nine Regia Aeronautica aircraft were lost in combat.

Originally, the Italian Alpini Corps was to be used on the Caucasus Front, where its mountain-warfare training would have been very helpful to the German offensive, but instead the entire Eighth Army was deployed on the Don Front.

Italian special forces at Camp Darby

It was stretched too thinly to effectively resist the Soviet counterattack in December Outnumbered and under-equipped, most its divisions were destroyed in the fighting of the next few weeks. Italy had one of the largest submarine forces in the world. At the beginning of the war, Italy had submarines, of which only seven could be considered out of date.

Italian submarines were used throughout the war and patrolled the, Atlantic, the Mediterranean, Red, and Black seas, and even the Indian Ocean.

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Their success rate was diminished by a number of factors, but was still comparable to the German U-Boats when considering the ratio of attacks-to-ships sunk. Out of documented attacks, Italian submarines sank merchant ships totaling , tons. They also sank 13 warships totaling 24, tons. The Savoia-Marchetti SM. Although Italy continued to utilize the biplane well into World War II, many people are surprised to learn that Italy was the second country to test a jet-powered aircraft: the Campini Caproni CC. Italy was only able to produce 11, aircraft between — During that timeframe, the RA was able to shoot down 2, aircraft and destroy another aircraft on the ground.

In the war at sea, the RA was noted for sinking merchant ships and, in cooperation with the Luftwaffe, the RA was credited for sinking enemy warships. The purpose of this article is not revisionist history or defense of Italian actions in World War II. Whether you are a historian or a history buff, it is important to understand that history is written by the victors, and this sometimes does a disservice to the future generations, who may develop a mistaken conclusion of events, nations and their people. A very well written article highlighting an important feature of the Second world War. Overall I think the point is well made.

Anyone know where I can obtain copies of letters between Italian soldiers not officers and their loved ones between ? Can be a compilation in book form or a directiron to archives. Can be translated or in Italian.

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The author suggests that the Italian failure in Egypt October was due to the lack of firepower. It is true that they received better arms later, but compared to the very small British force in Egypt at the time, the Italians had an overwhelming advantage in men and material. And it is true that when integrated with German units, the Italians in North Africa fought fairly well. Pointing out examples of reasonable performance does not answer this basic question. Dennis, you might want to read this HistoryNet interview with Joe Quattrone.

In part of it, he talks about being a boy in Italy during the war. Same reason the germans lost the battles on each and every front that the Italians were situated, the same reason why the US marines lost so many men in the Phillipines chaseing McArthur out, the same reason why the French and British lost so many men at Dunkirk, the same reason why the American 1 armour was chased and almost routed in their initial encounter with the Littorio armoured division in K valley Tunisia.

They were all overwhelmed. Were they overwhelmed in Greece as well?

Britain was fighting on multiple continents while still keeping the Germans from occupying their homeland. Italians have no excuse for their repeat poor performance. The reason is simple: Italians have been absolute garbage at war since the fall of Rome. The difference between Rome and the present is Italians had a lot of foreign help back then as more than half of the Roman army was of non italic origin. It is to note that the Army Higher Commands have the same territorial jurisdiction of the Navy Higher Commands, in order to support the cooperation and the coordination between them.

In turn, Arms and Corps are composed of "specialities" that match the type of fight that each department is able to support and for which is structured and prepared. The Arm of Infantry an Arm of the Italian Army that employs fighters on foot, called the infantrymen. The Infantry is the backbone of the Armed Force since the majority of its operating units belong precisely the weapon of infantry.

The Arm has its roots in ancient legions of ancient Rome, but the official date of his birth is associated with that of the establishment of the Italian Army May 4, The Arm of Infantry includes within the specialities of:. They are currently organized in five operational Divisions, which are subordinated to the 5th Alpine Troops Army Corps. Established in , their original mission is to protect Italy's northern mountain border with France and Austria.

In the Alpini deployed on their first mission abroad, in Africa; nowadays, at least one Brigade is permanently deployed in Italian East Africa and several exercises are held on Libyan mountains. Alpini collar patches are green two-points flames; when the Alpini personnel belong to a non-infantry speciality or the green is the background to their speciality rectangular patch. Alpini formations currently 5 Brigades bear the same name since their establishment, albeit downsized, and are deployed and garrisoned through the Alps range, with the exception of the 4th Alpine Paratrooper Rangers Regiment " Monte Cervino " which is stationed in Gran Sasso mountain.

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Paratroopers are soldiers trained in parachuting and generally operate as part of an airborne force. Paratroops units are used for tactical advantage as they can be inserted into the battlefield from the air, thereby allowing them to be positioned in areas not accessible by land. The duties of the paratroopers Brigades are those of the "Early Entry" first unit to be placed in an operating theatre and the reserve of the Army Corps, where there is the use of the same Parachute Brigade as a normal infantry formation.

In this second use, the Paratrooper Cavalry Regiment provides the heavy impact force. Paratroopers are surrounded by a great hype. It is known, at least among common folks, that paratroopers are almost supermen because they have the courage to jump out of an air-plane. Propaganda and most paratroopers strongly encourage this consideration. Paratroopers Brigades consist of nine Battalions each, numbered according a common pattern: the nd Paratroopers Brigade " Folgore " has st to th Battalion, the 2nd Brigade from st to th, and so on.

The 1st Lagunari Brigade " San Marco " is an amphibious assault force with headquarters in Mestre, a borough of Venice. The lagLagunari are designed to be a very mobile attack force, high-powered weaponry, and tactical skills. They are trained to attack from the water by sea, land or air and to establish a beachhead, which is an area of control on foreign territory. Recruits arrive at the Brigade after 10 weeks of basic training at the Recruit Training Battalions and an additional 8 weeks of Module K. They have always been a high-mobility light infantry unit, and can still be recognized by the distinctive wide brimmed hat that they wear only in dress uniform in modern times , decorated with black capercaillie feathers.

The feathers are usually applied to their combat helmets. Another distinctive trait of the Bersaglieri is the fast jog pace they keep on parades, instead of marching. They are named after pillars of the former Republican nature of the State, with the exception of the " Cacciatori d'Africa " " African Hunters " , which holds and keeps traditions and honours of the Bersaglieri units employed in the African War. Republican names for Bersaglieri formations have been kept since the return to the monarchy, despite the opposition of monarchists.

The Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia could not afford large numbers of cavalry, so a quick-moving infantry corps of marksmen was needed. These troops were trained to high physical and marksmanship standards. A level of independence and initiative was also encouraged. The first public appearance of the Bersaglieri was on 1 July They marched through Turin with the rapid, high-stepping gait still used by the Bersaglieri even during barracks duty - on penalty of punishment if they do not. During World War I, the 12 regiments of Bersaglieri fought with distinction.

A contingent of Bersaglieri was sent to participate in the Sinai and Palestine Campaign in After the war, restructuring of the Italian Army reduced the number of Bersaglieri battalions to two per regiment. Elite units with high morale and an aggressive spirit were seen as one way to break such tactical stalemates as the trench warfare of However, the Army resisted any temptation to dilute their quality, and recruits continued to be of above-average size and stamina. They endured intense physical training, as well as having to qualify as marksmen.

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The Bersaglieri valiantly fought in North Africa. While in the past the mobility of the Bersaglieri was helped by their training in running and by the aid of bicycles, regiments currently in service are all mechanised. Bersaglieri traditions are still stressed. The Bersaglieri collar patches are purple-red "flames". Enlisted troops still wear the red fez. Officers wear black berets with their ordinary uniforms, but the feathered "vaira" in ceremonial uniform. They also wear black gloves, while other Army corps wear white ones.

Each Bersaglieri unit had a band called a " fanfara ", who plays their instruments at the run while on parade. The " fanfara " does not contain percussion instruments. Cavalry is the Arm of rich technology, capable of operating in small groups to explore and search for information and with the mass and power of battle tanks, able to start and finish the fight. In with the unification of Italy regiments totaled 17, five of which will be used in the capture of Rome in Aggregate cavalry Savoy is also the training of guides on horseback Garibaldi, active from to Towards the end of the nineteenth century are also formed cavalry colonial, first in Eritrea and after also in Libya.

Italian Air Force Cs

On the eve of World War I the Italian cavalry reaches the maximum number of regiments, After the war, the cavalry is reduced up to 12 regiments and begins its mechanization. During the War of Africa units were partly on horseback, partly mechanized and armoured and partly on foot. In the postwar years and in more recent times, the cavalry, now fully mechanized with the use of armoured vehicles, participated in numerous missions abroad.

From 1 June , the Tank Corps become a specialty of the Cavalry. Armoured brigades are named after heroes or protagonists of the Risorgimento, with some exceptions: La Marmora, Mazzini and Garibaldi are names of Bersaglieri infantry formations, and an armoured brigade of each armoured division is named after the parent formation. Currently there are 11 active Armoured Brigades, all framed within the field Divisions:.

The Arm of Artillery is the "Combat Support" branch par excellence. Its weapon systems, self-propelled guns and howitzers, allow to hit the enemy lines up to 40 kilometers away. The use of this Arm is significantly changed over time by acquiring ever more sophisticated and efficient materials.

Today it is increasing thrown has requested the establishment of agile units and able to infiltrate the territory, control and gain in-depth targets. The development also new combat forms, such as chemical and nuclear weapons, has brought additional tasks the weapon that, recently, he turned one of his units in the regiment for the Nuclear Bacteriological and Chemical defence.

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Today, Artillery includes two specialities:. For training and operational purposes, each Speciality has a Speciality Command Brigade-level. The uniform is the set of items of clothing, kit and equipment worn by the soldier to carry out the service and outside of it as a distinctive element of their condition. For each type of uniform seasonal variations exist, summer and winter. The Ordinary Uniform consists of a gray-green jacket with four buttons, four patch pockets with central torch and closing flap with button, removable shoulder boards closed by a snap fastener.

Gray-green trousers are a classic cut, with pleats, four pockets and fob. The gray-green shirt has two pockets; a gray-green tie, brown leather gloves, low brown shoes, olive yarn socks, rigid cap or specialty headgear according to specific situation complete the uniform. Both winter and summer Ordinary uniform have the same colour and shape, changing only the fabric; depending on weather conditions, the uniform can be worn with the cloth coat or with the overcoat.