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In a few cases a single letter represents two very different sounds, as c, which is pronounced as k before a, o, and u, but th as in thin, or as s in America before e or i. The overarching differences between Spanish and English pronunciation are tense- ness of articulation and syllabification within the breath group. Due to the tenseness of their articulation, for example, all Spanish vowels have a clear nondiphthongal character, unlike English long vowels, which tend to be bipartite e. Syllabification is a problem for English speakers because in Spanish, syllables are formed without respect to word boundaries, such that el hado 'fate' and helado 'ice cream' are both pronounced as e-la-do, and the phrase tus otras hermanas 'your other sisters' is syllabified as tu-so-tra-ser-ma-nas.

In fast speech, vowels may combine, as in lo ofendiste 'you offended him', pronounced lo-fen-dis-te. Finally, when Spanish con- sonants occur in clusters, very often the articulation of the second influences that of the first, as when un peso 'one peso'is pronounced um-pe-so, and en que 'in which'. As a part of a diphthong, it sounds like the y of English yes, year. Examples: bien, baile, reina. Notably, a is similar to the always pronounced this way, even when not stressed.

This contrasts with the English tendency to reduce unstressed vowels to schwa [a] , as in America, pro- nounced in English as [a-me-ri-ka]. Examples: cura, agudo, uno. When u occurs in diphthongs such as those of cuida, cuento, deuda, it has the sound of w as in way. At the beginning of a breath group or when preceded by the m sound which may be spelled n , they are both pro- nounced like English b. Examples: bomba, en vez de, vine, invierno. In other environments, especially between vowels, both letters are pronounced as a very. This sound has no equivalent in English.

Examples: haba, uva, la vaca, la banda. However, this sound is not ac-. Examples: casa, cosa, cuna, quinto, queso, crudo, aclamar. Note that, as mentioned above, the vowel u is not pronounced in quinto and queso. In contrast, when appearing before the vowels e and i, c is pronounced as s in. Spanish America and the southwest of Spain, and as th as in thin in other parts of Spain see s for more information.

However, it represents a single sound, which is similar to the English ch in church and cheek. Examples: chato, chaleco, mucho. In terms of articulation, it is pronounced by the tongue striking the teeth rather than the alveolar ridge as in English. Second, it is represented by two variants. The first of these, which is similar to that of English dame and did, occurs at the beginning of breath groups or after n and 1. Examples: donde, falda, conde. In all other situations the letter rep- resents a sound similar to the th of English then.

Examples: hado, cuerda, cuadro, usted. This sound tends to be very relaxed, to the point of disappearing in certain environments, such as word-final and intervocalic. Examples: gente, giro. At the beginning of breath groups before the vowels a, o, u, and before the consonants 1 and r, it is pronounced like the g of English go. Examples: ganga, globo, grada. In all other environ- ments it is pronounced as a very relaxed-. Examples: lago, la goma, agrado.

Examples: kilo, keroseno. Examples: lado, ala, sol. II is no longer considered to be a separate letter in the Spanish alphabet. However, it does represent a single sound, which differs widely in pronunciation throughout the Spanish-speaking world. In most areas, pronounced like the y of Eng. In extreme northern Spain and in parts of the Andes, it sounds like the lli in Eng.

In the River Plate area it is pronounced like. Examples: madre, mano, cama. Examples: no, mano, hablan. There are exceptions, however. For example, before b, v, p, and m, it is pronounced m, as in en Barcelona, en vez de, un peso, while before k, g, j, ge-, and gi-, it is realized as [q], the final sound of Eng. Examples: caro, tren, comer. In contrast, at the beginning of words, and after n, 1, s, the letter r is realized as a trill, as in rosa, Enrique, alrededor, Israel. The double letter rr always represents a trill, as in carro, correr, guerrero. America and in parts of southern Spain.

In most of Spain, in contrast, it is realized with the tip of the tongue against the alveolar ridge, producing a whistling sound that is also common in southern dialects of American English. Examples: solo, casa, es. In these dialects, esta may be pronounced as ehta or eta. Between vowels, it is usually pro- nounced ks or gs but never gz , as in examen, proximo, though in a few words it is pronounced as s, e.

Before a consonant, x is almost always. In most areas it is pronounced like the. In the River Plate area it is pronounced like the g in beige or the sh in ship.

El libro de las palabrotas

Examples: yo, ayer. In most parts of Spain, except the southwest, it is pronounced as the th in Eng. In southwestern Spain and all of Spanish America, in contrast, it is pronounced s. Examples: zagal, hallazgo, luz. Spanish words are normally stressed on the next-to-last syllable when they end in a vowel or the consonants n or s. Examples: mesa, zapato, aconteci mien to, hablan, mujeres. Words whose pronunciation does not conform to this rule are considered exceptions, and their stressed syllable is indicated with an accent mark. Conversely, Spanish words are normally stressed on the final syllable when they end in a consonant other than n or s.

Examples: mujer, actuali dad, pedal voraz. For the purposes of stress assignment, diphthongs are considered the same as simple vowels. Thus, arduo and industria are considered to have two and three syllables respectively, with regular stress on the penultimate However, some syllable. Thus, the orthography esta was assigned to the demonstrative adjective 'this', fem. This convention is no longer observed by most writers. All Spanish nouns, not just those that denote male or female beings, are assigned either masculine or feminine gender.

As a general rule, male beings mu- chacho "boy', toro 'bull' and nouns ending in -o lodo 'mud' are assigned all. Otherwise, nouns ending in con-. Where the masculine noun does not end in -o, the. Finally, some words vacillate as to gender, e. The equivalent of English the is as follows: masculine singular, el; Definite Article.

In spite of this, these nouns remain feminine in the singular, as shown by adjective. When preceded by the prepositions a and de, the masculine singular article el forms the contractions al and del. Indefinite Article. The equivalent of English a, an is as follows: masculine singular, an; feminine singular, una. In the plural, masculine unos and feminine unas are equiv- alent to English some. Formation of the Plural. Formation of the Feminine. Adjectives ending in -o change to -a: blanco, blanca 'white'. The following adjectives and adverbs have irregular forms of comparison:.

Infinitive hablar Pres. Infinitive comer Pres. Infinitive vivir Pres. The superscript number or numbers listed as part of a verb entry indicate that the verb is to be conjugated like the model verb in this section that has the corresponding number. Only the tenses that have irregular forms or spelling changes are given, wherein irregular forms and spelling changes are shown in boldface type.

Part, sintiendo b. The familiar imperative is regular: bendice tu, maldice tu, contradice tu, etc The past participles of. The following verbs are used only in the forms that have an i in the ending: abolir, agredir, aterirse, empedernirse, transgredir. The verb concernir is used only in the third person of the following tenses: Pres.

The verb roer also corroer has three forms in the first person of the present indicative: roo, royo, roigo, all of which are infrequently used. In the present subjunctive the preferable form is roa, roas, roa, etc. The verb soler is used most frequently in the present and imperfect indicative. It is less frequently used in the present subjunctive. How does Demetrio signal to his men? III 1.

Are they outnumbered? Is it effective? Do they listen? What happens? How many men does Demetrio lose in the battle? Where and how do they find these men? What do the serranos say about the government soldiers Federales? Who is Luis Cervantes? Where has he come from? What does Demetrio decide to do with him? What difference did Luis Cervantes fail to appreciate? How is actually fighting in the revolution different from merely writing about it as a journalist?

VII 1. How does Demetrio plan to get Luis Cervantes to tell him the truth about his intentions? How does Luis Cervantes describe the cause of the revolution? How does Pancracio respond? Do you think that the men fighting with Demetrio would describe their reasons for fighting in the same way that Luis Cervantes would? VIII 1. To whose benefit does it work? Where does she get her information?

Do you think this is a reliable way to get information? Think about the period of the revolution—is there any other way to get information? What remedy does Sena Pachita use on Demetrio? How does Luis Cervantes help Demetrio? What is the nickname the men give Luis Cervantes?

What do you think it means? How does Luis Cervantes smooth things over with Venancio? How do you think Camila feels about Luis Cervantes? Do you think he returns these feelings? Why do you think this upsets Camila? XII 1. How does Anastasio attempt to distinguish himself from the other men fighting for Demetrio? What stories does he tell Luis Cervantes? What news of the revolution do the men get from the travelers?

Who do the revolutionaries need to defeat at Zacatecas? Why does Demetrio join the revolution and become an insurgent? What does Luis Cervantes appeal to when he speaks of the potential of the revolution? Think about whether he is appealing individual gain, or a gain for the whole country. Now, compare this to the reasons that Demetrio and his men are fighting. XIV 1. How would you describe the way that Luis Cervantes treats Camila? Based on this treatment and the advice he gives her, do you think he respects her?

Compare how Camila feels the day the men leave with how Demetrio feels that day. What was life like for the men before they began fighting? Think about what is revealed by the series of questions asked in this section. Who do they come upon on the highway? What does this man tell them? XVI 1. What suggestions does Luis Cervantes make to ensure that the attack is successful?

What does he fear about the old man they met the day before? Does Demetrio heed any of the warnings or suggestions? Are there more Federales than they expected? What happens when Demetrio and his men enter the small plaza? Does the head of the Federales think the revolutionaries are much of a threat? How do you know? XVII 1. Who is the old sergeant? Where did the revolutionaries meet him before? The man who leads them through town has a brother who has been forced to fight for the Federales. The man wants to save his brother before the fighting begins.

What happens to his brother? Who wins the battle? XVIII 1. How do the other men, including Natero and Demetrio, respond to Luis Cervantes toast? Why do you think this is? What is different about Luis Cervantes and his reasons for fighting that set him apart from the rest of the men? What did they do on their way? How did they acquire so many of the objects they brought with them?

How do the men talk about Pancho Villa? What kind of image or myth has developed around him based on the stories the men tell? XXI 1. How does Demetrio fight when they attack Zacatecas? What repuatation does he earn in this battle? A nation without ideals, a nation of tyrants!.

All that blood spilled, and all in vain! Part Two I 1. What kind of reputation does Demetrio have after Zacatecas? What kind of person do you think Guero Margarito is? Think about how he treats the waiter. How do Demetrio and Montanes tell time, even though they have a watch? Where do Demetrio and his men intend to stay? Where does Pintada tell them they should stay? What is her reasoning? Think about what the Federales do when they go through a town.

Does this make the revolutionaries any different? What does Luis Cervantes hide in his pocket? Do you think his actions are in contradictions to the things he has said about the purpose of the revolution? Luis Cervantes says that the actions of the men in destroying the house discredits the revolution—do you think his stealing does as well? What do you think it is that Pintada wants most from the revolutionaries? Think about her actions? What do they accomplish? What happened at the end of the party for Demetrio? Why does Luis Cervantes wake up bloody? Why does Demetrio want to visit Don Monico?

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Think about the story that Demetrio tells Luis Cervantes about why he started fighting in the revolution. Does Demetrio believe the women when they say they are alone and have no real weapons or money? What does he order his men to do? Who do they find?

What does he order them to do to the house? Why does he order this? What does Luis Cervantes try to give Demetrio as his commission?

Does Demetrio want it? How does Luis Cervantes try and get Demetrio to accept it. What does Demetrio say he needs to be a happy man? What do you think Luis Cervantes wants? Who does Luis Cervantes agree to bring to Demetrio? What did Luis Cervantes do to get Camila to come with him? How does Camila respond when she realizes what has happened? Who comes up with a plan to get Camila home? Who are the men ordered to fight now? What is their reaction? What does Camila decide to do? How does Pintada respond? What is Guero Margarito dragging behind him? Describe his treatment of the prisoner. What does this say about his character?

Why does Pintada threaten Camila? What does Demetrio realize as he watches the man who works for Pifanio? Why do you think Demetrio becomes so sad during this visit? What does Pintada do to try and upset Camila? Where is it that the men long to go? Why do you think Luis Cervantes wants to buy everything from Codorniz? Who intervenes for the old man who has had everything taken from him? What did Guero Margarito do to the old man when he came to request the bags of corn that Demetrio said he could have?

Where is he supposed to go? What is he supposed to do with his soldiers? What does Demetrio ask Pintada to do? How does she respond? What do you think of the fact that they allow Guero Margarito to stay, despite his behavior, but they tell Pintada she must leave? Why do you think the two are treated differently? What does Demetrio ask Luis Cervantes about Aguascalientes? Do you think that Demetrio understands the politics of the revolution? Think in terms of the contrast between the bigger political picture and the individual reasons many of the soldiers are. Why do you think the townspeople run from the soldiers?

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What happens to the waiter? Does Guero pay the bill? What kind of reputation do you think these men give the revolution? What distinction do the men make about stealing and killing after hearing the woman begging on the train? What have they done in each town they went to? Who does Demetrio go to in order to get advice? What advice does Natero give Demetrio? How does he explain the current state of the revolution?

Who is now fighting who? Who is Demetrio going to fight for? Part Three I. What year is at the beginning of Part 3? How do you know this? Where is Luis Cervantes now? What does Venancio ask him for?

"Para insultar con propiedad; Diccionario de insultos”

What bothers the men still fighting? Have they beaten the Federales? Why are they still fighting? What do the soldiers find when they come upon the serranos? What has happened to Villa at Celaya? Who defeated Villa? How does the following statement from Valderrama describe the Revolution from the point of the soldiers he fights with? But what do I are what stones wind up on top or on the bottom after the cataclysm?

Why do you think that Demetrio is sad? Why are the men who have been with. Demetrio since the beginning getting frustrated by the men who now fill the ranks of the revolutionary armies? Why do you think the townspeople no longer love any of the revolutionaries? What has happened to all of the villages over the past year? Who does Demetrio finally see again? How has she changed? How does Demetrio respond when his wife asks him why he keeps fighting?

What do you think this means? What is the irony of the last battle? What do you think happens to Demetrio at the end of the story? Do you think he survives the battle? Reflective Writing Questions 1. Compare and contrast Demetrio Macias with Luis Cervantes. What do the two men have in common? How are they different? Who do you think was more loyal to the Revolution? What do you think the end means? What point was Azuela making about the Revolution?

Do you agree with him? How would you have ended the novel? How is violence depicted in the novel? What role do you think violence plays, or what is the purpose of the portrayal of violence for Azuela? What point do you think he is trying to make in regards to violence and the Revolution? How does Azuela portray class differences in the novel?

Do you think this is significant? Consider the various book covers provided on the follow page. Now that you have completed the novel, which cover do you think is the most appropriate for the story? Explain your choice. While the entire country of Mexico was drawn into and forever changed by the Mexican Revolution, one must grasp the differing roles of the North and the South in order to understand the dynamics of the Revolution. While Azuela offers us a picture of the Revolution through the eyes of those Villistas from Central Mexico, other sources provide accounts from other areas.

Cartucho: Tales of the Struggle in Northern Mexico by Nellie Campobello is an autobiographical account of her experiences of the Revolution in northern Mexico. Her novel is divided into three section: Men of the North, The Executed, and Underfire, with each section made up of very short stories or descriptions of specific events or people. Originally written in Spanish, English translations are available. Nellie Campobello, whose full and original name is Ernestina Moya Francisca Luna , is generally said to be the only female writer who contributed to the literature of the Mexican Revolution during the s and s.

As they read, ask students to note anything they learn that may help them understand what it was like to live through the Revolution, or anything about specific events or figures already discussed. Questions are provided at the end of each excerpt as well. His shouts, loud, clear, sometimes one after the other and vibrating. You could hear his voice from a great distance. His lungs seemed made of steel. Severo told me about it: It happened in San Alberto, very near Parral. Severo had left Parral during a period of combat to pay a visit to his girlfriend, but being a civilan, he ran the risk of being taken for a spy.

This was on his mind as he headed toward San Alberto, where General Villa also happened to be, accompanied by about five hundred men. But Villa himself recognized that the young man was not from that town. Almost all of them were camped around a field near town. They had already lit their fires and begun roasting meat for dinner. When Villa heard what Severo said, he immediately let out a shout to his men.

The Changos have pinned them down, and they need us! They ran straight to their horses, and before you could blink an eye, they rode off in a cloud of dust. One shout from him was enough to mount his calvary. He wore leather pants and fur chaps. He said they had used hardly any ammunition. One of those who had died was a boy from our street of Segunda del Rayo. The general said good-bye, as on other occasions. If only you knew. From outside came the noise of a crowd of men. They were already circling the house. Mama began to sing in a loud voice. In came a man dragging his supurs, then another and another.

Mama was calm, smoking a cigarette. In his hand he carried a whip. Everything about him was relaxed. He tapped the whip against his right leg and looked attentively at Mama. I was just passing by and was surprised to see a number of horses here, so I came in. The men saw him, said nothing, and started to leave one by one, without looking back. Within its pages is a cast of dogs and horses and wild, lovable children and teenagers whose perseverance take them to stardom, but not the stardom found on television and the popular media.

This is the brilliance of becoming strong, confident walking stars, humans who are able to bring positive, magical change to society against all odds. Especially young people, who have the power to create their own futures, can find within themselves the power to achieve great feats of skill and courage. After years of facing language and cultural barriers, heavy discrimination and a reading problem, later diagnosed as dyslexia, Victor dropped out of high school his junior year and moved to Mexico.

There he discovered a wealth of Mexican art, literature, music, that helped him recapture and understand the dignity and richness of his heritage. Victor returned to the U. He began to feel the old frustration and anger return as he once again witnessed the disregard toward poor and uneducated people and especially toward the Mexicans. It awakened a desire to confront through literature the problems associated with his cultural heritage that continued to plague him. This began a Because the story is told from the point of view of two young boys, students will experience through their eyes what it was like to live during the Revolution.

Once students have read the excerpt, discuss what they thought of it. Use the following questions to guide the conversation: 1. Did they learn anything new about the Revolution? Which revolutionary leaders were portrayed in the story? How were they portrayed? Were the descriptions of the Revolution or its leaders different than in the other reading selections? What was it like to live as a townsperson someone not fighting as a soldier during the Revolution? Would you have wanted to be alive in Mexico during this time period?

Primary sources are the raw material of history - they are the actual document written and created during the time period. Primary documents shape our understanding of how history took place. By examining primary sources, we enable students to take agency over their own learning, to critically consider that there are always multiple versions of history whose story is told and by whom and how. In the process of working with primary documents, students develop strong analytical skills. You may choose to have students read all three documents, just one document, or divide the class into three groups and assign a different document to each group.

The students can read the documents individually, with a partner, in a small group, or as a whole class. Group work may make it easier for students to delve into the analysis. A brief overview of each document is provided below for reference. Each primary source document is provided in English and Spanish in the appendix of this guide. The Plan demands restitution of indigenous lands taken during the Porfiriato. Zapata and his followers would pursue the aims of the Plan de Ayala by taking arms against the next three Mexican presidents.

Venustiano Carranza proclaimed the Plan de Guadalupe, denouncing the traitor, Huerta, and declaring himself the interim President of Mexico. The Plan had no proposal for any type of social reform whatsoever. Together, they promoted the Plan as a way to give the Sonoran-led Obregonistas a reason to rally. The Plan furthermore declared that Adolfo de la Huerta would be the supreme cheif of the army. Select one of the primary source documents to use with your students and print enough copies so that each student may have his or her own copy upon which to write. It may be useful to also project the document on a common screen for all of the students to reference together.

This process is meant to build upon earlier conversations about the timeline and critical players engaged in the Mexican Revolution. Now is the moment at which you encourage students to stop and reconsider how we know what we know about the Revolution. Historians must critically and carefully analyze primary documents, and think as much about what is written as what is left out. If time permits, extend the conversation to discuss history more broadly. Emphasize that history is complex and open to interpretation. Allow students to discuss either as a class or in small groups the question of whether the history of the world or a country, or a city, or a classroom is singular.

Can there be multiple histories? How do we determine whose histor ies are recognized and retold? What roles do primary documents play in helping to make that decision? Now, encourage students to become historians themselves and to closely observe each primary source. They can work individually or in small groups. What was their primary purpose? If so, write a question to the author. Reconvene students and begin to collect their answers on a common space Promethean Board or butcher block paper.

As everyone comes back together, begin to collect the individual or group responses and write them in the common space. Try to triangulate commonalities and differences, using those convergences as springboards for further discussion. Use this as an opportunity to elaborate on the messiness of history and reiterate the importance of critically considering and analyzing written sources. The short excerpts are provided to give snap- shots of the soldadera experience.

You may then choose to move into Activity 2 if students need an overview of the people and events of the Revolution. This activity does require internet access for each student. What was it like to be a woman during the Revolution? Here students will complete group research projects on various women of the revolution. Students will need access to a library or the internet to complete the research, or you will need to obtain information on the specific revolutionary women ahead of time.

Essay questions are also provided that could serve as an assessment. Sixty soldaderas with their sons were taken prisoners. Rafael F. The shot had come from their direction. Villa pulled out his gun and aimed it at the level of their heads. We all would like to kill you! Then all of you will die before I do. They tied the ropes tightly, bruising their flesh.

In little time, the sixty women were tied up into ten or twelve bundles of human flesh, some standing up, others lying on the floor like stacks of firewood or barrels. The soldaderas screamed, not out of pain, but out of rage. The most blunt, vile and violent insults were heard coming from those piles of women pressed tightly against each other by the ropes.

Sixty mouths cursing at once, sixty hatreds aimed at a single target. Because the wood was dry and the wind blew, the human pyres burst into flame quickly. Then the smell of burnt flesh. Yet the women never stopped cursing Villa. Villa asked the women to point out the guilty party.

Nobody answered. They preferred to die than denounce anyone. Some dressed in rags, others in elegant stolen clothes. To back it up, she describes how she and four married women were detained in Guerrero—a Zapatista nest—between Agua del Perro and Tierra Colorado. The Zapatistas came out to meet them. They took them to General Zapata himself. The women ate a lot better than they did with the Carrancistas. When General Zapata found out that the Carrancistas were in Chilpancingo, he told the women that he would take them himself. Wrapped in shawls, they carry both the children and the ammunition.

On the bare ground, or sitting on top of the train cars the horses are transported inside , the soldaderas are small bundles of misery exposed. Casasola shows us again and again, slight, thin women patiently devoted to their tasks like worker ants—hauling in water and making toritillas over a lit fire, the mortar and pestle always in hand. Without the soldaderas, there is no Mexican Revolution—they kept it alive and fertile, like the earth. They would be sent ahead of the rest to gather firewood and to light the fire.

They kept it stoked during the long years of war. Without the soldaderas, the drafted soldiers would have deserted. The soldaderas crop up everywhere in the photographs—anonymous multitudes, superfluous, apparently not much more than a backdrop, merely there to swell the ranks, yet without them the soldiers would not have eaten, slept or fought.

The horses were treated better than the women.

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All was quiet and Nacha was crying. She was in love with a young colonel from Durango by the name of Gallardo. Nacha was a coronela who carried a pistol and wore braids. She had been crying after an old woman gave her advice. She went to her tent where she was busily cleaning her pistol when, all of a sudden it went off. In the next tent was Gallardo, sitting at a table and talking to a woman. She made a handsome figure, unforgettable for everyone who saw the execution. Today there is an anthill where they say she was buried. This was the version that was told for many years in the North of Mexico.

The truth came out some time later. Nacha Ceniceros was still alive. She had gone back to her home in Catarinas, undoubtedly disillusioned by the attitude of those few who tried to divide among themselves the triumphs of the majority. Nacha Ceniceros tamed ponies and rode horses better than many men. With her incredible skill, she could do anything a man could with his masculine strength.

If she. She coul have been one of the most famous women of the revolution. But Nacha Ceniceros returned quietly ot her ravaged home and began to rebuild the walls and fill in the openings through which thousands of bullets had been fired against the murderous Carranzistas. The curtain of lies against General Villa, spread by organized groups of slanderers and propagators of the black legend, will fall, just as will the bronze statues that have been erected with their contributions.

Revolutionary Mexico saw the rise of numerous hyper-patriotic ballads, called corridos. These stories-in-verse, narrating important events and activities of legendary characters in the classical quatrain form 8a 8b 8a 8b, became an important media for disseminating revolutionary themes to the masses in early twentieth century Mexico. The corridista singer generally begins the song by describing the place, date, and lead character.

The corrido is alive and well today. Revolutionary corridos remain well-known and are still performed in Mexico and in the southwestern United States. La Adelita, for instance, continues to celebrate the soldaderas of the Revolution, and retains enormous importance in the region. In this lesson, students will read and listen to popular corridos related to the Revolution. Classrooms will use the corridos to examine how popular culture conveys historical memory as much as, or at times, more so, than print media and primary historical documents.

The song has been performed by numerous artists, including Linda Rondstadt. This soldadera loved her sergeant and fought bravely at his side. Explain to students that you are going to discuss the Mexican Revolution by listening to and analyzing a corrido from the time period. As they brain-. Reconvene the class and spend several minutes hearing from each group. As they provide their definitions, write their suggestions on the common space. See if you can identify common themes or words. As a whole class, return to the topic of corridos.

Distribute the handout of the English and Spanish version of the selected corrido. After the music file is complete, divide the class again into small groups and encourage them to work together to consider the following questions: What can the corrido tell us about the Mexican Revolution?

Whose stories are they -who are the protagonists? What has happened to them? Why would these sung stories become a part of popular culture? Do you think they were important only to the people singing? Or did they address a broader need to speak out in the country? Reconvene the whole class again, ask one member from each group to share their responses, and write the answers on the board beside the other keywords for corrido. Now that the group has reviewed the corrido s and learned about how pop culture, particularly music, can inform our understanding of current events, tell them that they will each now become corridistas composers of corridos.

As time permits, allow students the opportunity to research a current event of their choice. According to the writing processes for your particular classroom, have each student write their own version of a corrido concerning the Mexican Revolution. They may choose to write it about a particular figure Villa or Zapata, for instance or about the plight of the workers, women, etc. These stories do not need to be shared with the whole class, though may be interesting and engaging if time allows to do so.

I have a pair of pistols with an ivory head to defend myself, if necessary, against those of the railway. Tengo mi par de pistolas, con sus cachas de marfil, para darme de balazos con los del ferrocarril. I have a pair of pistols with a precise aiming with one shot for my lover and another for my enemy. They say the Carrancistas are like scorpion when the Villistas are coming they run away with lifted tail. I know that as you see me in uniform you believe I come to ask of you although I come to you, brown girl, to look for your favors. So porque me ves de traje crees que te voy a pedir, solo quiero prieta chula tus favores conseguir.

Si porque me ves con botas piensas que soy melitar, [militar] soy un pobre rielerito del Ferrocarril Central. Corrido: La adelita On the top of the rocky mountain there was an army camped and a courageous women followed them fallen in love with the sergeant. Everyone appreciated Adelita who loved the sergeant as she was courageous and beautiful even the colonel estimated her.

And as the cruel battle was over and the army retired to the camp the sobbing of a woman was heard her crying filling the whole camp. The sergeant heared it, and fearing to loose his adored forever concealing his pain in himself he sang like this to his lover:. And if I died in the battle and my body was buried there Adelita, I ask you for God to come there and cry over me. Corrido: el mayor de los dorados I was the soldier of Francisco Villa of the world famous general who, even if sitting on a simple chair did not envy that of the President.

Fui soldado de Francisco Villa de aquel hombre de fama mundial, que aunque estuvo sentado en la silla no envidiaba la presidencial. I was one of the dorados made a Major by chance and made crippled by the war while defending the country and honor. I remember of times past how we fought against the invader today I recall the times past the dorados of whom I was a Major. Hoy recuerdo los tiempos pasados que peleamos contra el invasor, hoy recuerdo los tiempos pasados de aquellos Dorados que yo fui Mayor.

While dying, he neighed of pain and gave his life for the country Ay… Ay… while dying, he neighed of pain how much I cried when he died! I was always your loyal soldier until the end of the Revolution Ay… Ay… I was always your loyal soldier fighting always in front of the cannons. Most corridos share the following thematic and structural elements. The subject matter of corridos includes, but is not limited to: gun fights, social justice issues, betrayed romance, wars, and horse races.

A main character, or protagonist, is usually featured as heroic, tragic, villainous, or conflicted. Translated by Gustavo Pellon. Translated by Doris Meyer and Irene Matthews. Austin: University of Austin Press, Villasenor, Victor. Walking Stars: Stories of Magic and Power. Houston: Pinata Books, Anderson, Mark C. Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, Brunk, Samuel. Coerver, Don.

Cumberland, Charles C. Hall, Linda. McLynn, Frank. New Zealand: Random House, Meyer, Michael C. The Course of Mexican History. New York: Oxford University Press, Mraz, John. Paz, Octavio. Translated by Lysander Kemp. New York: Grove Press, Inc. Poniatowska, Elena. Las Soldaderas: Women of the Mexican Revolution. El Paso: Cinco Punto Press, Sosa, Lionel ed. Austin: University of Texas Press, Produced by the Mexican Federal Government.

Produced by PBS. This is a portmanteau film in which ten different directors consider contemporary perceptions of the Mexican Revolution. Mariano Azuela, the first of the "novelists of the Revolution," was born in Lagos de Moreno, Jalisco, Mexico, in He studied medicine in Guadalajara and returned to Lagos in , where he began the practice of his profession. He began his writing career early; in he published Impressions of a Student in a weekly of Mexico City.

This was followed by numerous sketches and short stories, and in by his first novel, Andres Perez, maderista. Like most of the young Liberals, he supported Francisco I. Madero's uprising, which overthrew the dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz, and in was made Director of Education of the State of Jalisco. After Madero's assassination, he joined the army of Pancho Villa as doctor, and his knowledge of the Revolution was acquired at firsthand. When the counterrevolutionary forces of Victoriano Huerta were temporarily triumphant, he emigrated to El Paso, Texas, where in he wrote The Underdogs Los de abajo , which did not receive general recognition until , when it was hailed as the novel of the Revolution.

But Azuela was fundamentally a moralist, and his disappointment with the Revolution soon began to manifest itself. His later novels are marred at times by a savage sarcasm During his later years, and until his death in , he lived in Mexico City writing and practicing his profession among the poor.

Even in its most barbarous aspect it is beautiful," Solis said with deep feeling. That's no animal, I tell you! Listen to the dog barking! It must be a human being. The woman made no answer, all her senses directed outside the hut. The beat of horses' hoofs rang in the quarry nearby. The dog barked again, louder and more angrily. A tallow candle illumined the small room. In one corner stood a plow, a yoke, a goad, and other agricultural implements. Ropes hung from the roof, securing an old adobe mold, used as a bed; on it a child slept, covered with gray rags. Demetrio buckled his cartridge belt about his waist and picked up his rifle.

He was tall and well built, with a sanguine face and beardless chin; he wore shirt and trousers of white cloth, a broad Mexican hat and leather sandals. With slow, measured step, he left the room, vanishing into the impenetrable darkness of the night. The dog, excited to the point of madness, had jumped over the corral fence. Suddenly a shot rang out. The dog moaned, then barked no more. Some men on horseback rode up, shouting and sweating; two of them dismounted, while the other hung back to watch the horses. Give us eggs, milk, beans, anything you've got! We're starving! It would take the Devil himself not to lose his way!

Even the Devil would go astray if he were as drunk as you are. Or is it an empty. God's truth, which is it? How about the light and that child there? Look here, confound it, we want to eat, and damn quick tool Are you coming out or are we going to make you? Both of you! You've gone and killed my dog, that's what you've done! What harm did he ever do you? What did you have against him? Don't get riled, light of my life: I swear I'll turn your home into a dovecot, see?

His alcoholic tenor trailed off into the night. Do you hear that, Lieutenant? We're in Limon. What the hell do I care? If I'm bound for hell, Sergeant, I might as well go there now. I don't mind, now that I've found as good a remount as this! Look at the cheeks on the darling, look at them!

There's a pair of ripe red apples for a fellow to bite into! I was. What's that? The colonel? Why in God's name talk about the colonel now? He can go straight to hell, for all I care. And if he doesn't like it, it's all right with me. Come on, Sergeant, tell the corporal outside to unsaddle the horses and feed them. I'll stay here all night. Here, my girl, you let the sergeant fry the eggs and warm up the tortillas; you come here to me. See this wallet full of nice new bills? They're all for you, darling. Sure, I want you to have them. Figure it out for yourself. I'm drunk, see: I've a bit of a load on and that's why I'm kind of hoarse, you might call it.

I left half my gullet down Guadalajara way, and I've been spitting the other half out all the way up here. Oh well, who cares? But I want you to have that money, see, dearie? Hey, Sergeant, where's my bottle? Now, little girl, come here and pour yourself a drink. You won't, eh? Aw, come on! Afraid of your--er--husband.


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Well, if he's skulking in some hole, you tell him to come out. I'm not scared of rats, see! The lieutenant stood up, silent, cold and motionless as a statue. I didn't know you were there. I'll always stand up for a brave man. I'm proud and happy to call them friends. Here's my hand on it: friend to friend. But it's because you don't know me, that's why, just because the first time you saw me I was. But look here, I ask you, what in God's name can a man do when he's poor and has a wife to support and kids?

Right you are, Sergeant, let's go: I've nothing but respect for the home of what I call a brave man, a real, honest, genuine man! I suffered as though it was you they'd shot. She wanted to hold him in her arms; she entreated, she wept. But he pushed away from her gently and, in a sullen voice, said, "I've an idea the whole lot of them are coming. At the door, they separated, moving off in different directions. The moon peopled the mountain with vague shadows. As he advanced at every turn of his way Demetrio could see the poignant, sharp silhouette of a woman pushing forward painfully, bearing a child in her arms.

When, after many hours of climbing, he gazed back, huge flames shot up from the depths of the canyon by the river.